Basis for consolidation
Subsidiaries are investees controlled by the Group. The Group controls an investee when it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. In particular, the Group consolidates investees that it controls on the basis of de facto circumstances. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases. All intra-group transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between group companies are eliminated in full; unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Where necessary, accounting policies for subsidiaries have been changed to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
A change in the ownership interest of a subsidiary, without a change of control, is accounted for as an equity transaction. Losses are attributed to the non-controlling interests even if that results in a deficit balance.
If the Group loses control over a subsidiary, it derecognises the assets (including goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary, the carrying amount of any non-controlling interests, the cumulative translation differences, recorded in equity; recognises the fair value of the consideration received, the fair value of any investment retained and any surplus or deficit in profit or loss and reclassifies the parent’s share of components previously recognised in other comprehensive income to profit or loss.
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the Group, liabilities incurred by the Group to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Group in exchange for control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree, and the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. If, after reassessment, the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held interest in the acquiree (if any), the excess is recognised immediately in profit or loss as a bargain purchase gain.
When a business combination is achieved in stages, the Group’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date (i.e. the date when the Group obtains control) and the resulting gain or loss, if any, is recognised in profit or loss. Amounts arising from interests in the acquiree prior to the acquisition date that have previously been recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss where such treatment would be appropriate if that interest were disposed of.
Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business (see above) less accumulated impairment losses, if any.
For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Group’s cash-generating units (or groups of cash-generating units) that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when there is indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognised directly in profit or loss in the Consolidated Statement of Profit or Loss. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.
On disposal of the relevant cash-generating unit, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.
The Group’s policy for goodwill arising on the acquisition of an associate is described below.
Investments in associates
Associates are entities in which the Group generally has between 20% and 50% of the voting rights, or is otherwise able to exercise significant influence, but which it does not control or jointly control. Investments in associates are accounted for under the equity method and are initially recognised at cost, including goodwill. Subsequent changes in the carrying value reflect the post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the associate. The Group’s share of its associates’ profits or losses is recognised in profit or loss, and its share of movements in reserves is recognised in other comprehensive income. However, when the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associate, the Group does not recognise further losses, unless the Group is obliged to make further payments to, or on behalf of, the associate.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associates; unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.
Recognition of revenue
Fee and Commission income
Fees and Commissions are recognized when services are provided.
Revenue for services provided over a period is recognized pro rata over the contractual term and consists of commission income on operations with long-term exchange instruments, listing fees, depositary fees, and other.
Recognition of interest income
Interest income is recognized on an accrual basis using the effective interest method. The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial asset and of allocating the interest income over the relevant period.
The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the debt instrument, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Once a financial asset has been written down as a result of impairment, interest income is thereafter recognized using the rate of interest used to discount future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss.
Interest earned on central counterparty financial assets is presented net of interest expense incurred in respect of the offsetting financial liabilities within gains or losses on financial assets carried at fair value.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position include cash on hand, unrestricted balances on correspondent and deposit accounts with banks with maturity up to one business day. Accrued interest on the above balances that is receivable in more than one business day is excluded from cash and cash equivalents the purpose of consolidated statement of cash flows. Amounts that are subject to restrictions on their availability, including minimum reserve deposits with the CBR, are not included in cash and cash equivalents.
The Group recognizes financial assets and liabilities in its Consolidated Statement of Financial Position when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Regular way purchases and sales of financial assets and liabilities are recognized using settlement date accounting.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in profit or loss.
Financial assets are classified into the following specified categories: financial assets “at fair value through profit or loss” (FVTPL), “held-to-maturity” investments (HTM), “available-for-sale” (AFS) financial assets and “loans and receivables”. The classification depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Financial assets are classified as at FVTPL when the financial asset is held for trading.
A financial asset is classified as held for trading if:
- it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term; or
- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial assets that the Group manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or
- it is a derivative that is not a designated and effective hedging instrument.
Financial assets at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognised in profit or loss incorporates any dividend earned on the financial asset. Fair value is determined in the manner described in Note 31.
Held-to-maturity investments are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity dates that the Group has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. HTM investments are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method less any impairment.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables that have fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market are classified as “loans and receivables”. Loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment. Interest income is recognised by applying the effective interest rate, except for short-term receivables when the recognition of interest would be immaterial.
Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are those non-derivative financial assets that are designated as available-for-sale or are not classified in any of the three preceding categories. After initial recognition available-for sale financial assets are measured at fair value with gains or losses being recognised in other comprehensive income until the investment is derecognised or until the investment is determined to be impaired at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously reported in other comprehensive income is reclassified to the Consolidated Statement of Profit or Loss. However, interest calculated using the effective interest method is recognised in profit or loss.
Impairment of financial assets
Financial assets, other than those at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. Financial assets are considered to be impaired when there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the financial asset, the estimated future cash flows of the investment have been negatively affected.
For financial assets, objective evidence of impairment could include:
- significant financial difficulty of the issuer or counterparty; or
- breach of contract, such as default or delinquency in interest or principal payments; or
- probability that the debtor will enter bankruptcy or financial reorganisation; or
- disappearance of an active market for that financial asset as a result of financial difficulties.
For financial assets carried at amortised cost, the amount of impairment loss recognised is the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate.
The carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced by the impairment loss directly for all financial assets with the exception of loans, receivables and investments held-to-maturity, where the carrying amount is reduced through the use of an allowance account. When a loan or a receivable is considered uncollectible, it is written off against the allowance account.
Derecognition of financial assets
A financial asset (or, where applicable a part of the financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognized where:
- rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired;
- the Group has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or retained the right to receive cash flows from the asset, but has assumed an obligation to pay them in full without material delay to a third party under a “pass-through” arrangement;
- the Group either (a) has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
After a transfer, the Group reassesses the extent to which it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset.
If substantially all the risks and rewards have been neither retained nor transferred, the Group assesses whether or not it has retained control of the asset. If it has not retained control, the asset is derecognized. Where the Group retained control of the asset, it continues to recognise the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement.
Offsetting of financial assets
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position only when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liability simultaneously. The right of set-off must not be contingent on a future event and must be legally enforceable in all of the following circumstances:
- the normal course of business;
- the event of default; and
- the event of insolvency or bankruptcy of the entity and all of the counterparties.
Central counterparty financial assets and liabilities
NCC acts as a central counterparty (CCP) and guarantees settlements of certain exchange transactions. Receivables and payables on such deals that may be offset against a clearing member are reported net in accordance with IAS 32 and are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at the net fair value based on daily settlement prices.
Sales and purchases of securities and currency via the CCP are recognised and simultaneously derecognised at the settlement date.
For the products that are marked to market the Group recognises gains and losses on open positions of clearing members on each exchange day. The variation margin is used to settle gains and losses on open positions resulting from market price fluctuations on a daily basis. The variation margin does not comprise collateral as it is a daily offsetting of gains and losses in cash. Products that are marked to market are therefore not reported in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.
Receivables and payables under repurchase transactions (repo) are classified as loans and receivables and carried at amortised cost.
Collateral of central counterparty
As the Group guarantees the settlement of certain traded contracts, it has established a multi-level collateral system. The central pillar of the collateral system is the daily determination of the overall risk per clearing member (margin) to be covered by cash and securities collateral.
Securities collateral is not derecognised by the clearing member providing the collateral. As the transfer of securities does not meet the conditions for derecognition, the securities are not recognised as assets.
In addition to these daily collateral payments, market participants must make contributions to the risk-covering fund which is described in Note 24.
Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued
Classification as debt or equity
Debt and equity instruments are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Group are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Repurchase of the Group’s own equity instruments is recognized directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Group’s own equity instruments.
Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities “at FVTPL” or “other financial liabilities”.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities classified as “at FVTPL” include CCP financial liabilities and certain derivatives.
Other financial liabilities
Other financial liabilities, including banks deposits and balances of market participants, loans payable, distributions payable to holders of securities and other liabilities, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, with interest expense recognised on an effective yield basis.
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Distributions payable to holders of securities comprise dividends and coupon amounts received by the Group from the issuers of securities on behalf of customers of the Group, for which the Group also provides depository services. The normal settlement period for distribution of dividends and coupon amounts to its customers is three days. Amounts of dividends and coupons payable to clients are stated at their contractual values.
Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Group derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Group’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire. Where an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognized in profit and loss.
Precious metals are represented by physical precious metals and accounts in precious metals. Precious metals are recorded on the reporting date at CBR prices, which approximate fair values. Corresponding accounts in precious metals are recorded within Due from financial institutions and physical precious metals are recorded within Other assets. Clients’ accounts in precious metals are recorded within Balances of market participants. Precious metals are not financial instruments and therefore excluded from financial risk management disclosures in accordance with IFRS 7.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment is carried at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and any impairment losses.
Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method:
|Buildings and other real estate
|Furniture and equipment
Freehold land is not depreciated.
The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
An item of property and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss.
Intangible assets acquired separately
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives at the annual rates of 10% - 25%. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognised separately from goodwill are initially recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost).
Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis at the annual rate of 4%. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.
Internally developed intangible assets
Development costs that are directly associated with the production of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the Group are capitalised and an internally generated intangible asset is recognised only if it is probable that it will generate economic benefits exceeding costs beyond one year and the development costs can be measured reliably. An internally generated intangible asset is recognised only if the Group has the technical feasibility, resources and intention to complete the development and to use the product. Direct costs include software development employee costs and an appropriate portion of relevant overheads. Expenditure on research activities is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.
Subsequent expenditure on intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates.
Derecognition of intangible assets
An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.
Impairment of tangible and intangible assets
At the end of each reporting period, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. Where a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or a cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation decrease.
Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or a cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal of the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation increase.
Assets classified as held for sale
The Group classifies a non-current asset (or a disposal group) as held for sale if its carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. For this to be the case, the non-current asset (or disposal group) must be available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (or disposal groups) and its sale must be highly probable.
The sale qualifies as highly probable if the Group’s management is committed to a plan to sell the non-current asset (or disposal group) and an active program to locate a buyer and complete the plan must have been initiated. Further, the non-current asset (or disposal group) must have been actively marketed for a sale at price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value and in addition the sale should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification of the non-current asset (or disposal group) as held for sale.
The Group measures an asset (or disposal group) classified as held for sale at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. The Group recognises an impairment loss for any initial or subsequent write-down of the asset (or disposal group) to fair value less costs to sell if events or changes in circumstance indicate that their carrying amount may be impaired.
Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current period are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date in the countries where the Group operates and generates taxable income.
Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and
liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except:
- When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss;
- In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Countries where the Group operates also have various other taxes, which are assessed on the Group’s activities. These taxes are included as a component of operating expenses in the Consolidated Statement of Profit or Loss.
The Group grants the right to some employees to purchase equity instruments on the terms settled in individual contracts.
The cost of equity-settled transactions is recognised, together with a corresponding increase in equity within Share-based payments reserve, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled.
The cumulative expense recognised for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Group’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The income statement expense or credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognised as at the beginning and end of that period (Note 11).
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made.
Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position but are disclosed unless the possibility of any outflow in settlement is remote. A contingent asset is not recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position but disclosed when an inflow of economic benefits is probable.
The Group provides custodial services to its customers which include transactions with securities on their custody accounts. Assets accepted and liabilities incurred under the fiduciary activities are not included in the Group’s Consolidated Financial Statements. The Group accepts the operational risk on these activities, but the Group’s customers bear the credit and market risks associated with such operations. Revenue for provision of fiduciary services is recognized as services are provided.
In preparing the financial statements of each individual Group entity, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.
For the purposes of presenting Consolidated Financial Statements, the assets and liabilities of the Group’s foreign operations are translated into RUB using exchange rates prevailing at the end of each reporting period. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates for the period, unless exchange rates fluctuate significantly during that period, in which case the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions are used. Exchange differences arising, if any, are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity (attributed to non-controlling interest as appropriate).
Goodwill and fair value adjustments on identifiable assets and liabilities acquired arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign operation and translated at the rate of exchange prevailing at the end of each reporting period. Exchange differences arising are recognised in other comprehensive income.
Earnings per share
The Group presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) data for its ordinary shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Group by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.
An operating segment is a component of a Group that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses (including revenues and expenses relating to transactions with other components of the same Group); whose operating and financial results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance, and for which discrete financial information is available. As at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the Group comprised a single operating segment.
Adoption of new and revised standards
In the current period, the Group has adopted all of the new and revised Standards and Interpretations issued by the IASB and IFRIC of the IASB that are relevant to its operations and effective for reporting periods ending on December 31, 2015.
The adoption of these new and revised Standards and Interpretations has not resulted in significant changes to the Group’s accounting policies that have affected the amounts reported for the current or prior years.
Amendments resulting from Improvements to IFRSs to the following standards did not have any impact on the accounting policies, financial position or performance of the Group:
Amendments to IAS 19 Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions
IAS 19 requires an entity to consider contributions from employees or third parties when accounting for defined benefit plans. Where the contributions are linked to service, they should be attributed to periods of service as a negative benefit. These amendments clarify that, if the amount of the contributions is independent of the number of years of service, an entity is permitted to recognise such contributions as a reduction in the service cost in the period in which the service is rendered, instead of allocating the contributions to the periods of service. This amendment is not relevant to the Group, since none of the entities within the Group has defined benefit plans with contributions from employees or third parties.
Annual improvements 2010-2012 and 2011-2013 Cycle
These improvements are effective from 1 July 2014 and do not have any material impact on the Group. They include:
IFRS 2 Share-based Payment
This improvement is applied prospectively and clarifies various issues relating to the definitions of performance and service conditions which are vesting conditions, including:
- A performance condition must contain a service condition
- A performance target must be met while the counterparty is rendering service
- A performance target may relate to the operations or activities of an entity, or to those of another entity in the same group
- A performance condition may be a market or non-market condition
- If the counterparty, regardless of the reason, ceases to provide service during the vesting period, the service condition is not satisfied.
IFRS 3 Business Combinations
The amendment is applied prospectively and clarifies that all contingent consideration arrangements classified as liabilities (or assets) arising from a business combination should be subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss whether or not they fall within the scope of IFRS 9 (or IAS 39, as applicable).
Amendments to IFRS 13 Short-term Receivables and Payables
This amendment to IFRS 13 clarifies in the Basis for Conclusions that short-term receivables and payables with no stated interest rates can be measured at invoice amounts when the effect of discounting is immaterial.
IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 Intangible Assets
The amendment is applied retrospectively and clarifies in IAS 16 and IAS 38 that the asset may be revalued by reference to observable data on either the gross or the net carrying amount. In addition, the accumulated depreciation or amortisation is the difference between the gross and carrying amounts of the asset. The Group did not record any revaluation adjustments during the current period.
IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures
The amendment is applied retrospectively and clarifies that a management entity (an entity that provides key management personnel services) is a related party subject to the related party disclosures. In addition, an entity that uses a management entity is required to disclose the expenses incurred for management services. This amendment is not relevant for the Group as it does not receive any management services from other entities.
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement (Annual improvements 2011-2013 Cycle)
The amendment is applied prospectively and clarifies that the portfolio exception in IFRS 13 can be applied not only to financial assets and financial liabilities, but also to other contracts within the scope of IFRS 9 (or IAS 39, as applicable).
New and revised IFRSs in issue but not yet effective
Standards issued but not yet effective up to the date of issuance of the Group’s financial statements are listed below. This listing of standards and interpretations issued are those that the Group reasonably expects to have an impact on disclosures, financial position or performance when applied at a future date. The Group intends to adopt these standards when they become effective.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
In July 2014, the IASB issued the final version of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments which reflects all phases of the financial instruments project and replaces IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement and all previous versions of IFRS 9. The standard introduces new requirements for classification and measurement, impairment, and hedge accounting.
IFRS 9 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018, with early application permitted. Retrospective application is required, but comparative information is not compulsory. Early application of previous versions of IFRS 9 (2009, 2010 and 2013) is permitted if the date of initial application is before 1 February 2015.The adoption of IFRS 9 will have an effect on the classification and measurement of the Group’s financial assets, but will potentially have no impact on classification and measurements of financial liabilities.
IFRS 16 Leases
In January 2016, the IASB issued IFRS 16 Leases with an effective date of annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019. IFRS 16 results in lessees accounting for most leases within the scope of the standard in a manner similar to the way in which finance leases are currently accounted for under IAS 17 Leases. Lessees will recognise a ‘right of use’ asset and a corresponding financial liability on the balance sheet. The asset will be amortised over the length of the lease and the financial liability measured at amortised cost. Lessor accounting remains substantially the same as in IAS 17. The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 16 on its consolidated financial statements.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
IFRS 15 was issued in May 2014 and establishes a new five-step model that will apply to revenue arising from contracts with customers. Revenue arising from lease contracts within the scope of IAS 17 Leases, insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts and financial instruments and other contractual rights and obligations within the scope of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement (or IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, if early adopted) is out of IFRS 15 scope and is dealt by respective standards.
Under IFRS 15 revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer. The principles in IFRS 15 provide a more structured approach to measuring and recognising revenue.
The new revenue standard is applicable to all entities and will supersede all current revenue recognition requirements under IFRS. Either a full or modified retrospective application is required for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018 with early adoption permitted. The Group is currently assessing the impact of IFRS 15 and plans to adopt the new standard on the required effective date.
Amendments to IAS 1 Disclosure Initiative
The amendments to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements clarify, rather than significantly change, existing IAS 1 requirements. The amendments clarify:
- The materiality requirements in IAS 1
- That specific line items in the statement(s) of profit or loss and OCI and the statement of financial position may be disaggregated
- That entities have flexibility as to the order in which they present the notes to financial statements
- That the share of OCI of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method must be presented in aggregate as a single line item, and classified between those items that will or will not be subsequently reclassified to profit or loss.
Furthermore, the amendments clarify the requirements that apply when additional subtotals are presented in the statement of financial position and the statement(s) of profit or loss and OCI. These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016, with early adoption permitted. These amendments are not expected to have any impact on the Group.
Annual improvements 2012-2014 Cycle
These improvements are effective on or after 1 January 2016 and are not expected to have a material impact on the Group. They include:
IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations — changes in methods of disposal
Assets (or disposal groups) are generally disposed of either through sale or through distribution to owners. The amendment to IFRS 5 clarifies that changing from one of these disposal methods to the other should not be considered to be a new plan of disposal, rather it is a continuation of the original plan. There is therefore no interruption of the application of the requirements in IFRS 5. The amendment also clarifies that changing the disposal method does not change the date of classification. The amendment must be applied prospectively to changes in methods of disposal that occur in annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016, with earlier application permitted.
IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures — applicability of the offsetting disclosures to condensed interim financial statements
In December 2011, IFRS 7 was amended to add guidance on offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities. In the effective date and transition for that amendment IFRS 7 states that "An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013 and interim periods within those annual periods. The interim disclosure standard, IAS 34, does not reflect this requirement, however, and it is not clear whether those disclosures are required in the condensed interim financial report.
The amendment removes the phrase ’and interim periods within those annual periods’, clarifying that these IFRS 7 disclosures are not required in the condensed interim financial report. The amendment must be applied retrospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016, with earlier application permitted.
IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting — disclosure of information ‘elsewhere in the interim financial report’
The amendment states that the required interim disclosures must either be in the interim financial statements or incorporated by cross-reference between the interim financial statements and wherever they are included within the greater interim financial report (e.g., in the management commentary or risk report). The Board specified that the other information within the interim financial report must be available to users on the same terms as the interim financial statements and at the same time. If users do not have access to the other information in this manner, then the interim financial report is incomplete. The amendment should be applied retrospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016, with earlier application permitted.